RCE Chandigarh - 2021

Technological Adaptation for Gainful Utilization of Paddy Straw (Presently Burnt on Site) as Fuel (Briquettes) to replace Fossil Fuels
Basic Information
Title of project : 
Technological Adaptation for Gainful Utilization of Paddy Straw (Presently Burnt on Site) as Fuel (Briquettes) to replace Fossil Fuels
Submitting RCE: 
RCE Chandigarh
Contributing organization(s) : 
Facilitation : Punjab State Council for Science & Technology, Department of Science & Technology, Government of Punjab
Project Implementation: Technology Facilitation Cell on Pollution Control & Energy Efficiency
Industry Partners : M/s. Gill Brothers, Village Jalalabad East, District Moga & M/s. Punjab Renewable Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd., Navi Mumbai
Supported by : Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, Government of India & Industry
Focal point(s) and affiliation(s)
Name: 
Jatinder Kaur Arora
Organizational Affiliation: 
Punjab State Council for Science & Technology
Name: 
Pritpal Singh
Organizational Affiliation: 
Technology Facilitation Cell on Pollution Control & Energy Efficiency
Name: 
Maganbir Singh
Organizational Affiliation: 
Technology Facilitation Cell on Pollution Control & Energy Efficiency
Name: 
Ravleen Singh
Organizational Affiliation: 
Punjab State Council for Science & Technology
Format of project: 
manuscript
Language of project: 
English
Date of submission:
Tuesday, November 24, 2020
Crop Residue Management
At what level is the policy operating?: 
Subnational
Geographical & Education Information
Region: 
Asia-Pacific
Country: 
India
Location(s): 
i. Village Jalalabad East, District Moga, Punjab, India ii. Village Kulburchan, District Patiala, Punjab, India
Address of focal point institution for project: 
Punjab State Council for Science & Technology
MGSIPA Complex, Institutional Area,
Sector - 26, Chandigarh (India)
Ecosystem(s):
Target Audience:
Socioeconomic and environmental characteristics of the area : 
Punjab has nearly homogeneous physiography with major proportion being flat/plain except low ranges of shivaliks (“Kandi; areas”) in north and northeast. It has 3 perennial rivers (Sultluj, Beas & Ravi) and one seasonal river (Gagghar). Its climate is continental, being semi-arid to sub-humid with very hot Summers.

The agriculture development has played key role in economic development of the state. The industrial sector is dominated by small scale enterprises. Adequate roads network, 100% rural electrification, safe drinking water, schools and health centres provide basic amenities to the people within the region. Punjab has high per capita income.
Description of sustainable development challenge(s) in the area the project addresses: 
The Project addresses the following sustainable development challenges in the region by setting up of first-of-its-kind technology for utilization of paddy straw by producing briquettes resulting in:

i. Scientific management of agricultural waste generated from rice cultivation
ii. Reduce environmental pollution caused due to stubble burning
iii. Mitigation of >70,000 tonnes of CO2 per annum.
iv. Reduce Import of fossil fuel
v. Local employment generation.
Contents
Status: 
Completed
Period: 
July, 2020 to June, 2021
Rationale: 
In Punjab, the intensive rice based cropping systems in the region are characterized by the use of mechanical harvesters on almost entire area (leaving stubbles of 2’-3’) and a narrow window of time for sowing of next crop (generally wheat). The farmers tend to burn left over straw due to high cost involved in its in-situ or ex-situ management and short window for sowing of next crop resulting in paddy straw burning in fields every year.

About 17 million tonnes of paddy straw is generated in Punjab and out of which 60-65% is burnt in open fields resulting in environmental pollution leading to health hazards, soil degradation and loss of micro flora & fauna. Paddy Straw has a gross calorific value (useful heating value) of 3,200 to 3,500 kcal/ kg, which is closer to that of coal used for power generation in thermal power plants. Thus, it can be utilized as useful resource replacement of fossil fuel.
Objectives: 
1. Development and demonstration paddy straw based briquetting technology at two different geographical locations in the State (proposed capacity : 5000 T/ annum; 80% paddy straw : 20% other biomass)
2. Utilization of paddy straw briquettes as partial replacement of coal in brick kilns
3. Create awareness and skill development of workers
Activities and/or practices employed: 
1. Setting up of first pilot scale demonstration unit at M/s. Gill Brothers, Village Jalalabad East, District Moga and other commercial scale demonstration unit at Village Kulburchan, District Patiala with Industry partner M/s. Punjab Renewable Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd., Navi Mumbai for manufacturing of paddy straw briquettes. The combined capacity of Plants is 45,000 tonnes/ annum for which paddy straw would be collected for 40 villages in the vicinity of straw producing site.
2. Detailed pre and post energy and environment audit conducted in industries.
3. Skill development of workforce and awareness of stake holders.
4. Use of briquettes as replacement of fossil fuel in industry.
Size of academic audience: 
On-site training/ skill development of Industry and its workforce on use of paddy straw briquettes as replacement of fossil fuel: around 250 workers trained.
Results: 
• Demonstration of 2 Paddy Straw Briquetting plants of total capacity of 45,000 TPA.
• Collection of paddy from 40 villages in vicinity of the plant.
• Employment generation for operation of plant and seasonal employment for collection of paddy straw.
• Reduction of 70,000 tonnes of green house gas emissions per annum.
• Replacement of Fossil Fuel with Green Fuel.
Lessons learned: 
Success:
i. Gainful utilization of Paddy straw
ii. Reduction in environmental pollution by curbing stubble burning
iii. Establish alternate (to fossil fuel) green fuel option for industry
iv. Additional revenue generations for farmers

Challenges:
i. Farmers opt to burn paddy straw in open fields due to cost involved in-situ management of paddy straw and short window for sowing next crop.
ii. Collection and storage of biomass in short span of time.
iii. High capital cost involved in setting up of briquetting plant.
iv. High wear and tear of machinery: R&D intervention required to improve life cycle of wearable parts.
v. Modification in industry for switching over from conventional fuel to paddy straw based briquettes.

Opportunities:
i. Local employment generation.
ii. Community based plants to cater to local industry needs.
iii. Source of additional revenue generation for farmers.
iv. Utilization of paddy straw in industrial applications
v. Lower dependence of State on imported fossil fuel
Key messages: 
Reduce import of fossil fuels by adopting locally biomass based fuels produced by community based projects
Relationship to other RCE activities: 
The project is related to collaborative activities being undertaken under National Climate Change Action Programme within the region.

The RCE Chandigarh’s lead agency Punjab State Council for Science & Technology has been honoured with Sustainable Development Goal Action Award 2020 for ‘Environment Sustainability’ for promoting Cleaner Technologies to enhance Climate Resilience Capacity in the region by United Nations Development Programme’s Sustainable Development Goals Coordination Centre and Govt. of Punjab. The award is presented for contribution towards sustainable development in the region with exemplary initiatives with significant impacts.
Funding: 
The project was financially supported by Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, Government of India

Pictures:

File Name Caption for picture Photo Credit
Image icon Photo 1_Collection of Paddy Straw.JPG (7.35 MB) Collection of paddy straw PSCST
Image icon Photo 2_In-feed of Paddy straw shredder.JPG (5.65 MB) In-feed of paddy straw shredder PSCST
Image icon Photo 3_Briquetting Plant.JPG (2.59 MB) Briquetting plant PSCST
Image icon Photo 4_Paddy Straw briquettes.JPG (6.27 MB) Paddy straw briquettes PSCST
UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
(https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs) and other themes of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
SDG 1 - End poverty in all its forms everywhere 
Indirect
SDG 2 - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture 
Indirect
SDG 3 - Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages 
Indirect
SDG 4 - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 
Indirect
SDG 8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all 
Indirect
SDG 9 - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation, and foster innovation 
Direct
SDG 13 - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts 
Direct
Theme
Agriculture 
Direct
Waste 
Direct
ESD for 2030-Priority Action Areas
Priority Action Area 5 - Accelerating sustainable solutions at local level 
state: 
Direct