RCE Greater Nairobi - 2022

Location

Kenya
KE
CLIMATE VARIABILITY RISK PERCEPTION ON RAINFED AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AMONG SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN EMBU COUNTY, KENYA
Basic Information
Title of project : 
CLIMATE VARIABILITY RISK PERCEPTION ON RAINFED AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AMONG SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN EMBU COUNTY, KENYA
Submitting RCE: 
RCE Greater Nairobi
Focal point(s) and affiliation(s)
Name: 
Dr Ruth Kangai
Organizational Affiliation: 
Kenyatta University
Format of project: 
PowerPoint
Language of project: 
English
Date of submission:
Thursday, October 6, 2022
National climate change response strategy (NCCRS) and national climate change action plan (NCCAP)
At what level is the policy operating?: 
National
Constitution of Kenya 2010
At what level is the policy operating?: 
National
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
At what level is the policy operating?: 
International
Geographical & Education Information
Region: 
Africa and Middle East
Country: 
Kenya
Location(s): 
Embu County
Address of focal point institution for project: 
Kenyatta University
Department of Environmental Sciences and Education
43844 -00100 NAIROBI
Ecosystem(s):
Target Audience:
Socioeconomic and environmental characteristics of the area : 
The county receives an annual rainfall of between 1200 and 1500 mm from March to June and October to December, although the rainfall quantity received varies with altitude. Temperatures range from 12°C to 30°C a mean of 21°C. This climatic condition allows small-scale farmers to practice rain-fed agriculture. The county cultivates cash and food crops, including coffee, tea, macadamia, maize, beans, sorghum, and mangoes. In addition, the small-scale farmers rear cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and chickens. Other economic activities in the county include sand harvesting, tourism, and the presence of power dams that generate hydroelectric power.
Description of sustainable development challenge(s) in the area the project addresses: 
Embu County is an agricultural region that relies on seasonal rainfall and due to variability small-scale farmers experience reduced food shortage regardless of the availability of adaptive capacity. There is because climate variability is an environmental stimulus that causes fear and panic among the farmers. The ability to adapt to scathing climatic conditions is a function of farmers’ risk perception, exposure levels, and structural issues surrounding the small-scale farmer. There is a continuous drive to encourage farmers to be self-reliant in food production and therefore need to address climate change risk perceptions. This is in the line with SDGs no. 2, 3, 8, 13, and indirectly Goals 1 and 12 to ensure food security in the country
Contents
Status: 
Completed
Period: 
January, 2018
Rationale: 
This study will help boost resilience and advance the adaptive capacity of small-scale farmers on the negative impacts of climate variability within the county and country. Furthermore, the study findings reveal pertinent information on how climate variability risk perception influences rainfed agricultural practices that policymakers can use and draft policies that will encourage and assist small-scale farmers to cope with the climate change menace effectively. This can enhance resilience to climate change, improve food production, and alleviate poverty among the small-scale farmers of Embu County. Besides, the outcome of this study will subsidize the prevailing body of information on farmers’ risk perception of climate change to agricultural activities. The findings of the study will also deliver a background for upcoming research on education for climate change as a vital instrument for alertness in the entire country. Finally, there is a necessity to mainstream action-oriented policies on climate change at the county level due to decentralized services to the Counties. This research is thus judicious as it will offer a perfect orientation on ways to integrate information and knowledge on climate change into the County’s development plans.
Objectives: 
To assess the extent of variation in temperature and rainfall in Embu County between 1976 to 2016, Embu County
To investigate the economic impact on livestock and crop production by climate variability among small-scale farmers in Embu County
To examine the risk perceptions on climate variability and adaptation mechanisms and their influence on rain-fed agricultural practices among the small-scale farmers in Embu County
To determine farmer and farm characteristics that influence risk perceptions and adaptation to climate variability among small-scale farmers in Embu County
To assess the effectiveness of institutions and information channels in facilitating risk perception and adaptation mechanisms of climate variability among small-scale farmers in Embu County
Activities and/or practices employed: 
An exploratory study was done in the five sub-counties of Embu County where data collection instruments included questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informants’ interviews, observation sheets, and desktop study. The data in the questionnaires were subjected to descriptive statistics whereas Chi-square was used to test the degree of relationship among independent variables The logit model was adopted to analyze factors influencing net revenue among small-scale farmers. Heckman’s model was used to evaluate the influencing factors of climate change adaptation and perceptions. The Ricardian model was to examine the variation of net profits across different farms owned by small-scale farmers. Data from FGDs and Key informant interviews were abridged according to themes and relationships and conclusions drawn in line with the study objectives. Rainfall and temperature data from KMD (1976-2016) were subjected to Mann-Kendall trend text by use of XLSTAT version 2020 to give variations of time. Rainfall and temperature anomalies were also calculated to show long-term drifts of annual temperature and rainfall
Size of academic audience: 
65
Results: 
Objective 1. Within the County, there is a temperature rise for both max. mean (0.02℃) and min. temp (0.01°C). There was a rainfall amount reduction of 10.17mm. There exist extreme anomalies in rainfall and temperature.
Objective 2: Livestock and mixed farming practices tended to record negative returns to small-scale farmers (- Ksh 25,563 and -13,300) per yr. Crop production is a profitable practice for small-scale farmers (Ksh 37,057). Crop and mixed farming practices were directly influenced by rising temperatures. Other factors that may influence crop production are markets, soil erosivity, and occupation and those influencing mixed farming are education, and credit facility. Those influenced livestock productions are gender, access to media, and land size
Objective 3: Climate variability is real (96%) where 83% reported a rise in temp and change in rainfall patterns and 96.4% reported a decline or no floods. On the climate change risk perception 85% reported declined crop yield, crop failure 45%, 57.4% pest and disease, and 22% poor quality pasture On the perceived adaptation mechanisms 83% reported the need to adapt drought-resistant crops, 62% irrigation schemes, 97.6% presence of extension services, 38% agroforestry, nonfarm income (43%)
Objective 4:
The study found that Gender, Education level (6yrs and above), and presence of social networks were factors influencing farmers’ perception of climate change. Whereas age (31yrs and above), secondary education (10yrs), access to credit facilities, extension services, size of the farm, and distance to market place were influencing farmers’ adaptation to climate change.
Objective 5: There are five major formal institutions and 97% of the respondents have interacted with these institutions. The Radio, IK, and Agro vet shops were the Information Channels influencing adaptation whereas Indigenous Knowledge or nature influenced risk perception. Depart of Agriculture and Livestock development influence risk perception while the Department of Livestock Development, Development partners, and Cooperatives influence adaptation to climate change

Lessons learned: 
That small-scale farmers are tirelessly putting effort to adapt to climate change. However, lack of awareness and partial exposure to extension services from different departments within the County impairs their level of perception hence low adaptivity capacity
Key messages: 
Embu County through the Department of Agriculture to
Help farmers understand meteorological forecasts and disseminate the information to small-scale farmers through extension services
Formulate policies that incorporate farmer’s perception
Address farm and farmers’ traits that tend to influence the perception and adaptation of climate change
Co-ordinates relevant institutions (Embu University, KALRO, KMD) to enable co-learning with farmers
The Ministry of Agriculture to strengthen farmers’ institutions and information channels to enable the farmers to improve their perception
UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
(https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs) and other themes of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
SDG 1 - End poverty in all its forms everywhere 
Direct
SDG 2 - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture 
Direct
SDG 3 - Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages 
Direct
SDG 4 - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 
Indirect
SDG 5 - Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls 
Indirect
SDG 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 
Indirect
SDG 13 - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts 
Direct
Theme
Disaster Risk Reduction 
Direct
Traditional Knowledge  
Direct
Agriculture 
Direct
Curriculum Development 
Indirect
Plants & Animals 
Direct
ESD for 2030-Priority Action Areas
Priority Action Area 1 - Advancing policy 
state: 
Direct
Priority Action Area 2 - Transforming learning and training environments 
state: 
Direct
Priority Action Area 4 - Mobilizing youth 
state: 
Direct
Priority Action Area 5 - Accelerating sustainable solutions at local level 
state: 
Indirect
I acknowledge the above: 
Yes